CBSE The Age of Industrialisation Class 10 Notes History Chapter 5

Introducation

·        The period of Industrial revolution in which Manchies are used for production.

·        Process of Industrialisation first of all started with Britain and expanded in other continents.

·        Before all the works related to production held by handlabours.

·        Period of handlabours and manual production was know as proto industrialization.

·        Before Industrial revolution all the production related to trade and marketing depends on the trained labourers and the generations of employment was more than period of Industrialisation.

·        All the works related to cotton textile in india performed by weaver and other related labouress.

·        Handmade cotton textile was more demanded.

Before the Industrial Revolution

·        Before the industrial revolution all the production related to toroid and marketing depends on the traind laboulers and the generation of employment was more then industrial period.

·        All the works related to cotton textile in India performed by weavers and other related labourars.

·        The hand made cotton textile of India was more demanded in Britain and other European Country.

·        So,we can say that the period before revolution was more favourable for India Labourers and weavers.

The Coming up of the Factory

·        The first factory stablish in England in 1730 but at that time the factor were  rare and most of the works done by hand labours.

·        In let 18th century the no of factory increase rapidly in England & other country.

·        The first raw material for factory was boughten for the production of cotton clothes.

·        In let 18th century several invension held in the field of machince for increase the production like spinning machince,rolling machince,twisting machince etc.

·        Richard Arkwright was the first person who stablish the cotton mill.

·        Most of the factory stabilish in such places were the avaibality of raw material was easy.

The pace of Industrial Change.

·        Their were several reasons for pace of industrial change in European Country are as follow:-

i.          The first dynamic industrial growth in Britain held due to more demand of cotton cloths and metals products.It was the 1st phase of industrialization in Britain before 1840.

ii.          The process of industrialization effects the traditional industries very slowly even at the end of 10 century only 20% of the total production held throught industries.

   iii.          The speed of invension in the field of machinces was also very much slow and several years taken for invention of a new machines.

   iv.          The new technology for production goods come in some particular area mainly in urban area and it takes more time to spread in other areas.

   v.          So we can say that the pace of industrial changes was very much slow and take more time to replace the traditional industries.

Hand Labours and steam power.

·        In 17th and 18th century in Britian there was no any shortage of human labours.

·        Poor Britain and farmer more towards citys in large number for search of work.

·        When their was a planty of labours was available then the ways are very much low when the factory labours easily got hand labours.

·        Due to availability of large no. of labours the factory honours not introduce machince because machines was very much coastly and the hand labours was vey much cheep for the production.

·        First time the machines run by steam power introduces and the speed of production increase.

·        In some industry the demand of labours was seasonal and they employed per the requirement of the country.

·        So,we can say that in 17th and 18th century the importance of hand laboures not decearese due to introduction of some machinces.

Life of the workers

·        As we know that the huge no.of peasent and farmers move towards cities in searches of works.so it increase the population of urban areas.

·        In Britian the urbans area are divided into two parts poss area or general areas.

·        The workers of industries were not allow to enters in the poss area for any.purpose of works.

·        The works mainily recits in the near by areas of industry and these areas were slam areas.

·        There was no sufficient facilities available for worker like:-water,santitation facilities etc and they mostly live in tempory sets provided by factory.

·        There wages were so much low so that the life of worker in industrial areas in Britain was not comfortable and they face several problems.

Industrialisation in the Colonies

The Age of Indian Textiles

·        Before the industrial revolution the silk and cotton cloths of india was more demanded items in international market.

·        Most of the cotton clothes and silk product was hand made and mostly demanded in European Country.

·        The merchant and bankers in india involved in the production of cotton cloths in rural areas of India.

·        The bankers financinf the farmears and weaves and the merchants give the facility of transpatation and marketing.

·        This process contribute 100 years and the mearchants controlled all over the trades.

·        In 1750s and after these network which controlled by India merchants was broken down and british govt.slowly captured all the activity of production of silk & cooton cloths.

·        During the period of Indian merchants surat and hooghly was the main centre for cotton trade but during british period Mumbai and Kolkata becomes the centre.

What Happened to weavers?

·        Before 1750s Indian weavers were in the centre of production of cotton & silk clothes in India.

·        They have planty of work and all the work perform on the basis of contract.

·        After 1750s the machines stated to use in cotton textiles industries.

·        Spinning jenny was the first machince started use in textile industry in India.

·        The weavers started to oppose the maximum use of machine but the industrialist and traders was concentrated to the large production in very short time.

·        90% weavers becomes unemployed due to access use to machines and these weavers started to perform other work like agriculture and laboures.

·        From that the till to day the status of weaver having no any reforms and they struggle for their exisestence.

Manchester Comes to India

·        Manchester was the textile city of Britian were 1000 of textile mill stablished.

·        After 1750 when maximum production of cotton textiles held by machines,the raw material of cotton textile carried from India to Britain.

·        It involved the huge transportation expension and it creates a price high of cotton clothes.

·        The industrialists thought that if production is started in india then the transportation expesnsis from both side can be prevented.

·        So, the industrialist started stablishing the factory in Gujarat and maharastra and the production centre comes to Mumbai,surat,Kolkata and other city.

Factories Come Up

The Early Entrepreneurs

·        In Bengal,Dwarkanath Tagore made his fortune in the china trade.

·        In Bombay,Parsis like Dinshaw Petit and Jamsetjee Nusserwanjee tata who built huge industrial empires in India.

·        After colonial power came in power,India businessman were barred from trading with Europe in manufactured goods.

·        Seth Hukumchand, a Marwari businessman who set up the first Indian jute mill in Calcutta 1917.

·        So did the father as well as grandfather of the famous industrialist G.D.Birla.

Where Did the Workers Come From?

·        In 1901,there were nearly 6 lakh workers in India factiories.

·        Most of industrial workers comes from the near by district of that particular industries.

·        The farmers peaseant and poor people of rural areas who have not any work in their region.they move towards from industrial region in search of work.

·        In india most of the industry situated near,surat,Kolkata,Mumbai and kandlo in orrisa.

·        The workers from rural area travelled a long distance in search of work and ready to work it very low wages.

·        The no. of workers increases gradually in industry and lot of workers return back due to not availability of work.

 The Peculiarities of Industrial Growth.

·   The main peculiarities of industrial Growth in india were as follow:-

I. European Company started their production centre in India near by areas of raw material.

II.   These industry mainly focused on cotton textiles,species etc.

III.  The manufactured goods exported to the European Country as per their requirements.

IV.   In india cheap labours available in rural areas and transportation facilities also started in industrial areas.

V.          During the first world war the production of weapons increases which creater a great loss of forest in India.

Small-Scale Industries Predominate          

·        The major industrial growth in India held after first world war but the speed of industrial growth was very much slow and it covers only a small segments of the economics.

·        Nearly 70% industries located in the two states in Bengal and maharastra.

·        The industrial growth of India effect the small scale industries but after 1930 these small industries regain their position by adopting new technology .

·        Mostly in the field of handcraft and handules the small scale industries having great work and predominate the large industries.

·        The land made items of India like cotton cloths and silk cloths were more demanded items in European Countries.

·        Seventy-percent of the total prodection in the field of cotton textile covered by small scale industries by adopting new machines.

Market for Goods

·  By the industrial revolution the production of goods increase very rapidly and these goods require market for selling.

·   The markets selling competition because huge quantities of goods available in market by different industries.

·     Now the company started advertising there product by different medium in European country.

·     The labellingan goods like made in India,or made in Manchester also effects the consumers and the selling of products.

·     Asia and Africa become the large market for European product in 20th century.

 

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