3.Nationalism in India Class 10 Notes

The First World War,Khilafat and Non-Cooperation

·        The time period of first world was 1914 to 1918.

·        As the same time Mahatma Gandhi comes in India from south Africa and take the leadership of Indian freedom struggles.

·        Britain was also involves in first world war so,excpoilation of India increase during first world war.

·         Khilafat movement was an Islamic movement throught out the world against European country and Christian.

·        ‘Ali Bandhy’(Saukat Ali and Mohammad ali ) for the leaders of khilafat movement in India and run their movement sepertly from congress.

·        Non-cooperation movement was the movement started by mahatma Gandhi in 1915 in India with the help of congress party.

·        In these movement Mahatma Gandhi request the Indian citizens not to cooprate British govt. in any activity and oppose the govt. programe peacefully and  non- voilntly.

The Idea of Satyagraha

·        Mahatma Gandhi returned to India in Jan 1915.

·        He had come from south Africa where as he had successfully fought the racist regime with a nevel method of mass agitation which he called Satyagraha.

·        The idea of satyagraha emphasized the powere of trurth and the need to search for truth.

·        Without seeking vengeance or being aggressive, a satyagraha could win the battle through non-voilence.

·        In 1916 he travelled to chanparan in Bihar to inspire the peasants to struggle against the oppressive planlation system.

·        Then in 1917 he organized a Satyagraha to support the peasent of the kheda district of Gujarat.

The Rowlatt Act

·        It was the act made by british govt.in 1919 for the suppression on national movement lead by mahatma Gandhi.

·        By this act british govt. in hands the power of police.

·        In this law police can arrest any suspected person for a period of two years without permission of judiciary.

·        Before that by the time period for arresting by police was only 24 hours.

·        By using this law police arrested all sensior leaders of congress and decrease the speed of national movement of congress.

·        Mahatma Gandhi decides to launch a nation wide satyagarha against this Rowlatt act in 1919.

Jallianwala Bagh

·        The incident took place on April `13,1919 in Amritsar.

·        The day on which the incident took place was Baisakhi.It was a day of festival baisakhi is Punjab one of the laregest festivals.

·        The precussor to the massacre was the Rowlatt Act.This act was passed in Feb1919.

·        On April 10,1919 two famous leaders,Dr.Kitchlew and Dr.Satyapal were arrested on the bais of Rowlatt act.

Why Non-Cooperation

·        After the Satyagarh of 1919 Gandhi ji was not Satisfied by the success of the Satyagarha movement.

·        They want to add a huge population with there movement which was not possible by Satyagarha.

·        In 1920 Gandhi ji started a new movement called non-cooperation by which they appeal to the people of country not to cooperate in any war to british govt.

·        In this movement the farmer and tax payer denite to pay taxes lawer denites to handles cases,stusents denites to go in govt.schools,public servent not attendant to their offices etc.

·        Several famous perronalities of India return their title given by british govt and cooperate in this movement.

Differing stands within the Movement

The movement in the Towns

·        The non-cooperation movement of Mahatma Gandhi find success in all the part of country that in town in villages and in remote areas.

·        The people of town mainly involved in different services and business works.

·        The population of town having sufficient money but lack of time.

·        All the people of town like business man and service person help mahatma Gandhi by funding their movement.

·        By got of foreign wools like forgion cloth and others materials started from town and spread towards the country.

 Rebellion in the Countryside

·        The non-cooperation movement spread to the country side.It draw into its fold the struggles of peasants and tribals which were developing in different parts of India in the years after the war.

·        In june 1920,Jawahar Lal Nehru began going around the villages in Awadh,talking to the villagers and trying to understand their grievarices.

·        As the movement spread in 1921 the houses of talukdars and merchants were attacked,bazaars were looted 7 gain hoards were taken over.

·        In many places local leaders told peasants that Gandhiji had declared that no taxes were to be paid & land was to be redistributed among the poors.

Swaraj in the Plantations

·        For plantation workers in Assam,Freedom meant that right to move freedly in and out of the confined space in which they were enclosed and it meant retaining a link with the village from which they had come.

·          They belived that Gandhi ji was coming and everyone would be given land in thir own villages.

·        They interpreted the term swaraj in their own ways,imagining it to be a time when all suffering and all trobles would be over.

Towards Civil Disobedience

·        In feb 1922,Mahatma Gandhi decided to withdraw the non-cooperation Movement due to Chauri chaura incidence in which several police men killed by mob.

·        After the withdraw of non-cooperation movement serval years the nationalistic movement of congress becomes very much slow and Mahatma Gandhi not take part any role in any movement.

·        In 1930 the season leaders of congress like C.R Das and Motilal Nerhu requested Mahatma Gandhi regarding mobilize the movement and starts a new movement.

·        In 1926 ,C.R das an Motilal Nehru collectively formed a new party called swaraj party and decided to take part in council politics and local council election.

·        In 1928,when simon commission comes in India all the parties like congress swaraj party and Muslim league collectivety oppose and give a slogan “ simon go back”.

·        In 1929 the viceray lord Irwin announced the proposal before congress for status of dominion states for India.

·        In December 1929 under the presidency of jawhar lal Nehru the Lahore congress sumit formalished the demand of ‘Purna Swaraj ‘ or full indendence Indi and also decides that 26 Jan 1930 would be celebrated as Independer days.

·        So we can say that the period between 1922 to 1930 was the period of several event and several changes in Indian politics.

The Salt march and the Civil Disobedience Movement

·        In 1930,Mahatma Gandhi decided to start a new movement called civil Diobedience movement.

·        On 31st January 1930 ,Mahatma Gandhi sent a letter to viceroy prwin for their eleven demand releted to genral public of their demands not fullfil then he starts a movement..

·        On 11march 1930,Gandhi ji started a new movement with the salt march from sabermati aashram.

·        Gandhi ji selected salt for starting a movement pressure salt is a essential components of fppd of every citizens of the country

·        British Govt. emposed huge taxes on salts so it becomes costly and not afferable by the poor population.

·        Gandhi ji  started a salt march from Sabarmati ashram with there 78 voluntiears.

·        This march cover the distance of 240 miles in 24 days and lacks of people becomes the parts of march during these 24 days.

·        ON 6th April 1930, Gandhi ji reach dandi and violated the salt law by boiling the sea water to prepare the salt.

·        After this event the salt started to prepare on several places in india and british government comes back on salt low and reduce the taxes on salts.

·        MK Gandhi once again decied to cell  of the movement s’ entered into a part with irwin on 5th march 1931.

·        By this Gandhi-irwin pact Gandhi ji conserted  to participate in a round table confrance in conain’s the government agreed to released the political prisoners.

How participants saw the movement

·        As we know that due to success of salt march the civil disobedience of mahtma Gandhi become more popular then the other movement thourgh the country.

·        This is due to slection of salt for starting the movement.

·        IN rulral areas people for that their movement give freedom from all the taxes inposed by british govt. and farmers become free regarding their farming.

·        The urban population through that this movement of mahatma Gandhi givr freedom to our country and all the trades are free regarding their treds and marketing .

·        The workers and labours of industry think that the movement of mahatma Gandhi gives us more ways and reduces our duty hours.

·        So the different people of the country having different types of openion aboutm the success of the movement of mahatma Gandhi and all thinks that this movement got sure success.

The Limit of Civil Disobedience

·        As like other movements the civil disobedience movement having also limitations some of the limitations as follow.

1.      The division of congress party into naram dal and garam dal.

2.      The leaders of garam dal also violence and create a fear for british Govt.

3.      The leaders of naram dal in leadership of mahatma Gandhi not accept any type violence at anhi not accept any type violence at any cost.

4.      D.r.B.R Ambedker demand reservation for schedula caste (SC) and schedule tribe (ST) in political system which create division in civil disobedience movement.

5.      The demand of Pakistan by muslim league also create a division hindu and muslim which effect the success of civil disobedience.

The Sence of Collective Belonging

·        In the national movement of India several symbols and thinks use for ceeate a collective belonging in all the population of country.

·  This symbols used for create a sense of India in all the people of country spirit of caste,religion,wealth etc.

·        Some of the symbols are as follow:-

  i.          The humanification of aIndia as a lady(Bharat Mata)

ii.          National Flag.

iii.          National Anthem.

iv.          National Song.

 v.          National sign.

 vi.          National sentences.(Satya mev Jayate)

 vii.          National Birds.Animals. etc.

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