1.The Rise of Nationalism in Europe Class 10 Notes

Introduction

·      The Concept of nationalism first a fall comes on Europe.


·        At that time the concept of nationalism means the people of the world are grouped at distinges nations identify through the flag and national costume.

·        The fresh revolution first of all gives the felling of nation.

·        The Unification of germany and Italy also shows the emergence of the nation by different states.

 

The French Revolution and the idea of the nation.

 ·        The first clear expression of nationalism come with the French revolution in 1789.

·        Before 1789 the French divided into several small states ruled over by monarchy.

·        From the very begning of French revolution the revolutionary intralase several majors and practices that could create a sense of collective belonging among the French people as a nation.

·        A new French flag of tricolor introduced the revolutionary.

·        The estate general was elected by the body of citizens of French and renamed as national assembly.

·        A centrlised admistrative system starts and formulated uniform law for all citizens.

·        The civil code of 1804 usually know as the Napolenic code did away with all privileges based on birth and established equality before law.

·        So, we can say that during French revolution and after several efforts made by ruler to developed nationalism in the Frencyh population and French becomes as nation.

The Making of Nationalism in Europe.

·        Germany,Italy and Switzerland were divided inti kingdoms,duchies and cantons whose rulers had their autonomous territories.

·        They did not see themselves as sharing a collective identity or a common culture.

·        The habsburg Empire that ruled over Austria-Hungary.

·        In Hungary,half of the population spoke Magyar while the other half spoke a variety of dialects.

·        Beside these three dominant groups,there also lived within the boundaries of the empire.

·        The only tie binding these diverse groups together was a common allegiancxe to the emperor.

The Aritocracy and the New Middle Class

·        The Aritocracy means the ruling of a dictator,a single family or any army cisf in that particular country or state.

·        In Europe several country having Aristocracy type of ruling in which a ruler ruled over huge population as a dictator.

·        The countries like French,Germeny,Italy a new middle class emerges in which meanly the p.r of erssionals insusdustrial works,business mans , big farmers includes.

·        This middle class not easily adopt the aristocracy ruling and he felling og nationalist immerges in these people.

·        The middle was educated liberal class which made attemps for revolution of Aristocracy and development of nationalistic sticks.

What did Liberal Nationalism Stand for ?

·        Liberals words generally used for the group of people by which any change or any idea can accept easily.

·        In European countries the middle class was the liberal groups who wants changes witjout any vialance or any disturban.

·        The group of people who supports the development of Nationalism without any violence is called liberal Nationalisam.

·        The liberal nationalism plays an important role in French revolution and also during the ruling of Napoleans.

A New Conservatism after 1815

·        Conservatism stands for the traditional growth of European country to supports the monarchy and social hierarchies.

·        In European society the group of conservative helps the rural and nor want any change in the ruling systems.

·        In 1815 Britain,Russia,Prussia and Austria defeated Napoleaon bona parts collectively.

·        The Vienna Treaty sign with changes Napoleon bona part during their ruling was aboslist.

·        The Bourbon dynasty was resored in the power in French.

·        This was the big victory of conservative society in French in French who helps for defecting Napoleon bona parts.

The Revolutionaries

·        The Revolutionaries was the group of people who always supports the democratic types of ruling and accept the changes in ruling system.

·        The main aim of revolutionaries were to appose monarchical form of govt. and fight for liberty andf freedom.

·        They always belive in nation states and nationalism.

·        The best examples of revolutionaries in Italy was Giuseppe Mazzini.

·        In the age of 24 years he formed a society in Italy named as young Italy and Young Europe.

·        The aim of fighting of Mazzini was unification of Italy as a country.

The Age of Revolutions 1830-1848.

·        The time period between 1830 to 1848 was the revolution in French.

·        The first revolution to placed in French in july 1830 first time after the restorasion of power of Bourbon king in French in 1815.

·        After 1830 several small revolution to place in different parts of Belgium.

·        The july revolution sparked an uprising in Brussels which led to Belgium.

·        As like French the revolution also started in different parts of Europe like greeece which was the part of ottoman empire in 15th  century.

The Romantic Imagination and National Feeling

·        Romantic was a cultural movement sought to develop nationlists sentiment.

·        In this Romaticism the main role was concentrated to poets and artists.

·        The artist and poet wants to create a sense of collective belonging and a common heritage.

·        In different country like Germany and Poland the philosopher use their local languages to develop a nationalistic feeling in that particular country.

Hunger,Harship and Popular Revolt

·        1829 to 1830 was the years of graet economic hardship in Europe.

·        The main reason was chromous increase in population and less development of employment.

·        Due to introduction of machines the small industry to collapse.

·        In the country were autocratic ruling countinous the farmers and pleasant in very bad conditions.

·        The rise of food prices Also the disturbe the conditions of poor people.

·        In 1848 due to Shortage of food and unemployment the population paris comes on road.

·        In 1845 the weavers of Silesia at led a revold the constructors, so we can say that the period of 1830 to 1848 was the period of Hunger,Hardship Revolt in French.

1848:The Revolution of the Liberals

·        In 1848 revolution held by educated middle class called liberals.

·        Their main demand was creation nation states an parilimentry principle.

·        In Germany in 1848 all Germany national assembly was born.

·        In 1848 ,831 elected reprensentatives marched toward St.Paul church to take part in FrankFurt Parliament.

·        They drafted a constitution headed by manarchy.

·        Friedrich Wilhelm IV king of Prussia rejected this constitutional monarchy.

·        The army envolved in suppression of the assembly by Friedrich whilhelm IV. He also apposed the rights given to women by assembly.

·        In 1848 the autocratic monarch in Europe started to make several changes for impressing the liberals and the revolution liberals not having fulk success in their aim.

The Making of Germany

Germany-Can the Army be the Architect of a Nation?

·        The feeling of nationalism state among middle class of germany unit the germany.

·        This  middle class were supported by some rural,military and large number of land lords.

·        Prussia started the movement for nationalism under the leadership of Otto von Bismarck.

·        Three wars over 7 years with Austria,demarks and French ended with Prussia victory.

·        In January 1871 Prussia king William I was declared the german emperor in a ceremony held in versaillers.

·        Several preincess army representative important Prussia ministers including the chief minister Otto von bismarks presented in the hall to declare the new german empire.

Italy Unified

·        Before 1816,Italy was dynastic into seven states.

·        Out of seven states only Sardinia-Piedmont was ruled by the Italian leaders.

·        The north parts of Italy ruled by Austria.centre part ruled by people and south was under spain.

·        The problem in Italy was the language variation among different regions of Italy.

·        Giusepp Mazzini go together programme for unitary Italian Republic and also formed the secret society called young Italy.

·        The ruler of Sardinia piedmont  victor Emmanual II try to unify Italy through war.

·        A alliance with French made for defeat the Auria in 1859.

·        In 1860 the army moves towards out and defeated spain.

·        In 1861 Victor Emmanual II was declared as the king of United Italy.

The Strange Case of Britain

·        In Britain the formation of nation states was not the results of sudden revolution.

·        It was the result of a long term process of different events.

·        There were serval ethinic group lived in different areas of Britain with their own cultural and political tradition.

·        In 1688 the power of monarchy seized due to some comflicts between the parliament and rulers.

·        In 1707 the act of union between Britain and Scotland result in the formation of United kingdom of great Britain.

Visualising the Nation

·        Visualing the Nation means symbolized the nation by different identities to rights the feeling of nationalisms.

·        The female figure of nation becomes an allegory of the nation.

·        Some other different symbols use for visualize the ntion were as follw.

·        National flag, Postage stamps of 1850 with the figure of Marianne representing the Republic of france.

·        Germania became the allegory of the German nation.In Visual representations,Germania wears a cown of  oak leaves, as the german oak stands for heroism.

Nationalism and Imperialism

The Problem of Balkans.

·        The nationlist tension emerges in Europe after 1871 in the area called Balkans.

·        The Blakans was a region of geographical and ethinic variation compressing modern day Romanic,Bulgaria, Albania,Greece,Macedonia,Croatia,Bosnia-Herzegovina,Slovenia,Serbia and Montonegro.

·        The people leaves in these areas were prowdly know as Slavs.

·        The most of the part of Balkans was under Control of Ottoman Empire.

·        Due to the spread of idea of Nationalism in Balkans the disinterigation of ottom man Empire Starts.

·        By different afford of ottoman Empire by modernization and internal reforms by unification was not got success in `19th Century.

·        One by one all the nation states of Balkans declared their independence and ottoman Empires collapse.

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