3.Mineral And power Resources

Types Of Minerals

·        On the basis composition minerals are classified mainly as:-
1.      Metallic
2.      Non-metallic
·        Metallic Minerals contain metal in raw form Exam:- Iron ore,Bauxite,Manganese ore.
·        Mentallic minerals may be ferrous or non ferrous
·        Forrous minerals contains irons examples are iron ore,manganese and chromites.
·        Non-Ferrous mineral does not contain iron but may contain some other metal such as gold,silver copper or lead.
·        Non-Metallic minerals do not containb metals exam:- Limestone,mica and gupsum and mineral fuels like coal and petroleum.

Distribution Of Minerals

·        Minerals are found in igneous rock metamorphic rock and sedimentary rocks.

·        Iron ore,nickel copper minerals are found in igneous and metamorphic rocks.

·        Limestone is found in sedimentary rocks.

Use Of Minerals

·        Some minerals which are usually hard are used as gens for making jewellery.

·        Copper is used in almost everything from coins to pipes.

·        Silicon is used in almost everythings from coins to pipes

·        Aluminium is used is automobile,airplane botting industry,building and in kitchen cookware.

Conservation of Minerals

·        Minerals are the non-renewable resources.

·        It is necessary to reduce wastage in process of mining

·        Recycling of mental is the way to conserve minerals resources.


·        China and India have large iron ore deposists

·        The conttinent produces more than half of the world’s tin.

·        China,Malaysia and Indonesia are among the world’s leading tin producers.

·        China also leads in production of lead,antimoney and tungsten.

·        Asia also have deposists of manganese ,bauxite,nickle,zinc and copper.


·        It is the leading producer of iron ore in the world.

·        Russia,Ukraine,Sweden and France have large deposite of iron ore.

·        Minerals deposist of copper ,lead,zinc,manganese and nickel are found is eastern Europe and European.

North America

·        Mineral deposits in North America are located in three zone

1.      The Candian region north of the Great Lakes: Iron ore,Nickel,gold,Uranium and copper.

2.      The Appalachian region : Coal

3.      The Mountain ranges of the west :copper lead,zinc,gold and silver.

South America

·        Iron ore: Brazil

·        Copper : Chile and Peru

·        Tin : Brazil and Bolivia

·        Mineral oil ; Venezuela,Argentina,Chile,Peru and Columbia.

·        South America also has large deposists of gold silver,zinc,chromium,manganese,bauxite,mica,platinum,asbestos and diamond.


·        It is the world’s largest producer of diamonds gold and platinum.

·        Gold: South Africa,zimbabwe and zaire

·        Oil: Nigeria,Libye and Angola.

·        Other minerals found in Africa are copper iron ore,chromium,uranium cobalt and bauxite.


·        It is the largest producer of bauxite in the world.

·        It is a leading producer of gold diamond iron ore,tin and nickel.

·        It is also rich in copper,lead,zinc and manganese.

·        Kalgoorlie and Coolgardie areas of western Australia have the largest deposists of Gold.


·        Deposits of coals in the transantarctic mountains and iron near the Prince Charles Mountains of East  Antarctia is forecasted.

·        Iron ore,gold,silver and soil are also present in commercial quantities.

Power Resources

·        Power or Energy in necessary for industry agriculture,transport,communication.

·        Power resources categorised as.

1.      Conventional Resources

2.      Non-Conventional Resources.

·        Those sources which have been in common use for a long time are called convention sources of energy.

·        Firewoods and fossils fuels are the two main conventional energy sources.


·        It is widely used for cooking and heating.

·        In india,more than fifty per cent of the enery used by villagers come from fire wood.

Fossil fuels

·        Remains of plants and animals which were buried under the earth for millions years got coverted by the heat and pressure into fossils fuel.

·        Coal peroleum and natural gas are the fossils fuels which are the main sources of conventials energy.

·        Fossile fuels are in limited quantities amd the rate at consuming the growing world population is consuming them is far greater than the rate of their formation.


·        Most abundantly found fossil fuel.

·        It is used as a domestic fuel ,in industrie such as iron and steel,steam engines and generate electricity.

·        Electricity from coal is called thermal power.

·        The giant ferms and swamps got buried under the layers of earth millions of years ago converted into coal .Therefore referred to as buried sunshine.

·        Producers in the world : China,Usa,Germany,Russia,South Africa and France.

·        Producers in India : Raniganj,Jharia Dhanbad and bokaro in Jharkhand.


·        Petroleum is a thick black liquid.

·        It is found between the layers of rocks and is drilled from oil fields located in off shore and coastal areas.

·        Peroleum and its derivaties are called Black Gold as they are very valuable.

·        Producers in the world : Iran ,Iraq,Saudi Arabia and Qatar,USA,Russia,Venezuela and Algeria.

·        Producers in india Digboi in Assam high in Mumbai and the deltas of Krishna Godawari Rivers.

Natural Gas

·        Natural Gas is found with pertroleum deposists and is released when crude oil is brought to the surface.

·        It can be used as a domestic and industrial fuel.

·        Producers in the world: Russia,Norway,UK and the Netherlands.

·        Proudcers In India : Jaisalmer,Krishna Godavari deltra,Tripura and some areas off shore in Mumbai.

Hydel Power

·        Rain water or rivers water stored in dams in made to fall from heights.The falling water flows through pipes inside the dam over turbine blades placed at the bottom of the dam.

·        The water discharged after the generation of electricity is used for irrigantion.

·        One fourth of the world’s electricity is produve electricity.

·        Prouducers in the world : Paraguay,Norway,Brazil and China.

·        Important hydel power stations in India Bhakra Nangal,Gandhi Sagar,Nagarjuns Agar and damodar valley Projects.

Non-Conventional Source Of Energy

·        The increasing use of fossil fuels in leading to its shortage.

·        It is estimated thet if the present rate of consumption continues the reserves of these fuel will get exhausted.

·        Also it causes environmental pollution.

·        Examples of non- conventional sources:- Solar Energy,Wind Energy,Tidal Energy.

Solar Energy

·        Solar energy trapped from the sun can be used in solar cells to produce electricity.

·        The technology of utilising solar energy benefits a lot of tropical countries that are gblessed with abundant sun shine.

·        Solar energy is also used is solar heaters sola cookers,Solar dryers,besides being used for community lighting and traffic signals.

Wind Energy

·        The high speed wind rotate the wind mill which is connected to a generator to produce electricity.

·        Wind farms having clusters of such wind mills are located in coastal region and in mountain passes where strong and steady winds blow.

·        Windfarms are found in Netherlands,germany,denmark,UK,USA and Spain.

Nuclear Power

·        Nuclear Power is obtained from energy stored in the nuclei og atoms of naturallty occuring radio active elements like uranium and thorium.

·        Greatest Producers: USA and Europe.

·        Uranium deposits in India : Rajasthan and Jharkhand.

·        Thorium is found Large in quantities in the Monozite sands of kerala.

·        Nuclear power stations in India : Kalpakkam in Tamilnadu,Tarapur in Maharstra,Ranapratap Sagar near Kota in Rajasthan ,Narora in Up and Kaiga in Karanataka.

Geothermal Energy

·        Heat energy obtained from the earth the earth is called geothermal energy.

·        The temperature in the interior of the earth rises steadily as we go deeper.

·        USA has the world’s largest geothermal power plants followed by Zew Zealand,Lceland,Philippines and Central America.

·        In india geothermal plants are located in Manikaran in H.P and Puga Vally in Ladakh.

Tidal Energy

·        Energy generated from tides is called tidal energy.

·        Tidal energy can be harnessed by building dams at narrow openings of the sea.

·        During high tide the energy of the tides is used to turn the turbine installed in the dam to produce electricity.

·        Proucers in World : Russia,France and the gulf of Kachchh in India Have huge Tidal mill Farms.


·        Organic waste such as dead plants and animals material animals dung and kitchen waste can be coverted into a gaseous fuel called biogas.

·        The organic waste is decomposed by bacteria in biogas digesters to emit biogas which is essentially a mixture of methane of  methane and carbon dioxide.

·        Biogas  is an excellent fuel for cooking and lighting and produces huge amount of organic manure.

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