3.Ruling the Countryside History Class 8 Notes

The Company Becomes the Divan

·        On 12 August 1765 ,the Mughal emperor appointed the East Indian Company as the Diwan of Bengal.

·        Diwan was the biggest administrnation post to the ruling system og Bengal.

·        Now company becomes the finacial & administrative power of Bengal,Bhiar & Orsia.

·        All decisions taken by East Indian Company was in favour of British Govt for better Tradi.

Revenue for the Company

·        For Ruling in Bengal,Collection of revenve was a big challenge.
·        This revenve also important for good army.
·        Increases taxes of farmers.
·        Tax on trade.
·        Tax on Small industrier.

The Need to Improve Agriculture

·        The company introduced Permanent Settlement in 1793 under the reign of Lord Cornwallis.

·        Under Permanent Settlement, a fixed revenue was to be given to British and it would not increase in future.

·        Zamindars were recognised as the collectors of revenue and it was assumed that they would invest money to improve the crop production and fertility of soil.

·        Zamindars did not pay attention to the condition of land and tried to keep more and more money left after collection.

·        The Rajas and taluqdars were recognized as Zamindars.

·        As a result of greed for more revenue they blindly exploited the land resources.

 

The Problem
·        To increase the revenue company started a new scheme ‘ Permanent settlement ‘.
·        In this system tax fixed for each land as per their productivity.
·        This system creates a problems the zamindars not able to the taxes due to low production.
·        If zamindars not pay tax he loses their land.

A new System is Devised

·        After failure of Permanent settlement a new system of revene
collection adapted.
·        The system was named as ‘ Magalware- Sattlement.
·        Int his system offices go in each village & see the land.
·        Revenue fixed as per the status of land.

The Munro System

·        In south India , the concept of zamindars not exist.
·        There was the system of ‘ Ryots’.
·        These Ryots were small farmers.
·        For tax collection from there ryots a separate system started called Ryotwari system.

 

All as Not Well

·        By several systems adopted by company revenue collection not increase.
·        This is because the ststus of farmers was very much poor.
·        Natural distasters also effect is famers.

Crops  For  Europe

·        During British period Indisa comnerical farming started for the brifit of British Govts.
·        The measure crop product during British period are as follow;-
1.      Cotton
2.      Spices
3.      Indigo
4.      Opium
·        These all crops were higtly dimand in Eurpoe Country like Frachince,Briticn,German.

 

Does Colur Have A History ?

·        Yes,In India the value have a history during British Period.
·        This History Connection with the production of Indigo.
·        British Govt posefilly Production Indigo to Indian Framers.
·        The Framers production Indigo and sell it to Britiesh Govt on Very low amount.

Why the Demand For Indian Indigo ?

·        The Indioa indigo in highliy demand in Europe Country.
·        Indian indigo use to Prodcise blue Dye Colour.
·        This Blue dye colour use from colouring of cotton & silk clothes.
·        The Indian cotton & silk clothes were highliy usable clothes moslily in Britain.

Britain Turns to India
·        Does to huge dumend of India indigo in Europen country Brtain new Sscreen.
·        In this policys the factorys utillised Indian indogo started to shipt in India.
·        The producition of dye and other colouring materinal now started in India.
·        The British Govt. save the transiportation expenses and also untillised Indian Cheap labour in this induestrily.
·        So,we can say the British industries turns to indigo or British turns to India.

How was indigo Cultivated ?

·        There were two main system of Indigo cultivation; Niji and Ryoti.
·        In Niji system the vplanter produced indigo in lands that hr direclty controlled.

 

The Problem with Nij Cultivation

·        There only produced in pertile land and is a large area.
·        India farmers having small land of areas so, this is not lift on indigo cultivation.
·        The British Govt. required the farmers land and forefuilly inposed on that taremner to indigo.
·        After production farmers are found to sell their indigo to the British Govts.
·        This whole process is called Nij Cultivation.

Indigo On The Land Of Ryots

·       In Ryoti system, the planters forced the ryots to sign a contract an agreement (satta).

·       Those who signed the contract got cash advances from planters at low rates of interest to produce indigo.

·       The peasants got very low price for the indigo they produced and the cycle of loans never ended.

·       After an indigo harvest, the land could not be sown with rice which the peasants preferred as Indigo production reduced the fertility of soil.

The “Blue Rebellion “ and  After

·        In India “ Blue Rebellion” the revolt of farmers and ryots against the farming of indigo.
·        In March 1859 thousands of ryots of Bengal started of ot opposed the farming of indigo paist of all.
·        They attracked on indigo factors and destroy several factors in Bengal.
·        Throughout the countery this revolt spelt very speedly because farmers are really in trouble duet to farming of indigo.
·        Dues to this indigo the production og indigo collapsed in india and British Govts.give the freedom to the farmers to cultvale indigo their wish.

 

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