2.Land,Soil,Water,Natural Vegetation And Wildlife Resources


·        Land is a natural resouces which covers 30% of total area of Earth.

·        On that land mass all the continens are found.

·        Thes land having different land patterns like mountain,plains,ptateaus,hills deserts etc.

Land Use

·  Land is used for different purposes like agiculture,forestry,mining,restdental purposes,road,industries etc.

·        Population and technology decides how the land is used.

·        Land is divided into two parts:-

1.      Private Land

2.      Community Land

·        Private land means the land ownrd by individuals

·        Community land means the land owned by government or society exam;- roads,parks,hospital.

Conservation Of land Resource

·        Due to huge increase of population and pollution ,the land de4grade day-by-day.

·        The different factors of pollution like-water pollution,soil pllution,air pollution decreases the fertitily of soil.

·        The residential area and industrial area increased day-by-day and agricultural had and forest decreases day-by-day.

·        So,it is our duty to conserve the land mass for future generation accordingly.


·        The thin layer of the grainy substances covering the surface of the earth is called soil.

·        Soil is made up of organic matter minerals and weathered rocks.

·        The formation of soil through the process is called weathering.

·        Fig.2.3;soil Profile.

Degradation of Soil And Conservation Measures

·        Degradation of Soil means minimize the fertility of soil by different factors.

·        There are two main causes of soil degradation

1.      Soil erasion

2.      Soil pollution

·        Soil erasion means shifting of uper layers of soil by different factors like-water,air etc

·        Soil pollution causes due to chemical and waste materials of industrks residential areas.

·        For conservation or protection of soil several methods adopted.

1.      Mulching: A protective covering of rutting vegetable matter spred to reduce evaparation and soil erasion.

2.      Contour barriers : Barriers which are made like walts mounds lines of grass or brush to slow down water.

3.      Rock dam: rock dam are also used to slow down the flow of water.

4.      Terrace farming;- these are madeon the steep slopes .so that flat surfaces are available to grow crops.

5.      Intercropping: Different Croprs are grow in altermate rows and are sown at different times to protect the from rain wash.

6.      Contour Ploughing: Ploughing parallel to the contours of a hill slope to from a natural barrier for water to flow down the slope.

7.      Shelter Belts : Belts are the raws of trees are planted to check the wind movement to protect soil covers.


·        Water is renewable resource.

·        Three-fourth’s og the earth’s surface is covered with water.

·        But more than 97% is unuseable for animals and plants.

·        This huge amount of water is present is sea,ocean and glaciers.

·        Only 2.7% fresh water avaiable for use from earth.

·        This fresh water available in rivers,ponds,lake and ground water.

Problems Of water Availability

·        Due to huge increase is population the consuption of fresh water deceases day-by-day.

·        The groundwater table gradvallya decrease due large consumptions.

·        The water of rivers and lakes also polluted due to waste materials of towns and cities.

·        So,availabity of fresh water becomes a big prolems for most of the countries of the world.

Conservation og Water Resources

·        Conservation of water means protection of fresh water for future generation.

·        It could be done by serveral methods like:- rain water harvesting , protection of rivers from pollution and increase the forest area for better rainfall.

·        So,it is our duty to conserve water for coming generations.

·        If we invent a new technology for purefication of ocean & sea water than problems of fresh water can be minimize.

Natural Vegetaions And Wildlife

·        Natural vegetations means the grenry or plants present on earth.

·        Natural vegetation is also called flora.

·        The distribution of natural vegetation is very random through out the world.

·        Wildlife or animals called founder in geographical laungauge.

·        The animals distributed through out the world as per their climating adopdation.

Distribution of natural Vegetation

·        The 80% of the total natural vegetation (Plants) found in ocean or sea in the form alage&richen.

·        The remaining 20% of natural vegetation found in different form like – Forest,Grassland,Scrubs&Tumdra.

·        Forests are of severals types like evergreen forests,deciduals forests&temperate forests.

·        Scrubs are found in deserts areas where availabilty of water is very low.

·        The tundra vegetation found in low temprature area like  North pole and South pole.

Conservation Of Natural Vegetation And Wildlife

·        Conservation means protection of natural vegetation is disturbted we to pollution and adverse climate condition.

·        Several spicies of natural vegetatation becomes extret due to adverse climatic condition.

·        Several spicies of animals also are in danger zone due to huge pollution and cilmate condition.

·        So,it is our duty to protect plants and animals to become extinct and present for future generation.

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