2.Federalism CIVICS CLASS 10 Notes

What is ferderalism
·        Ferderlism is a system of govt.in which the power is divided into central govt.and various constitution unit of the country.
Ex:- State govt.,Gram Panchayat,Nagar Nigar Nigam ( Prinicipal Coopration ),Zila Parishad etc.

Main Features of ferderalism.

i.          In ferderalism there are two or more then two levels of Govts.

 ii.          Each levels of govt having their Jurisdiction,Power,Source of income.

iii.          The work and power of different levels of gpvt. Specified by constitution.

iv.          All levels of govt.works for the same population and their development.

 v.          Supreme Court having power to change the work and power of different levels of govts.

vi.          Sources of revenaw for all the levels of govt.is clearly by our constitution.

Types of ferderalism

·        There are two type of ferdar system adopted at internationals levels.
 i.          Coming together fedarlism – In these types of fedarlism the states or small units come together
and from the country as their own wise.
Ex – India.
ii.          Holding together ferdalism – In these types of ferdarlism the states or small units comes together
forcefully to form a country.Ex – India.

What makes India a  federal country ?

·        India is a federal country by following features :-

  •      India is a democratic country having three layers of Govts.
  • .      In India distubution of work and power done by our constitution.
  • .      As for our constitution the work divided by three list:-

                           I.          Union List.

                         II.          State List

                        III.          Concurrent List.

Union List

·        Union List includes the subjects of national importance such as defence,foreign issues,Railways,Banking etc.
·        97 Subjects includes in Union list.

State List

·        State list includes the subjects related to state.ex:- agriculture,irrigation,law and order,trade etc.
·        63 subjects includes in state list.

Concurrent Lists

·        Concureent lists includes the subjects on which both control and state govt.work together. Ex:- education,health,transport,forest,etc.
·        57 subjects includes in concurrent list.
·        If any conflict held b/w central and state on any concurrent issue then the law made by central govt. is replemented in there department.

 How is ferderalism practiced

  Linguistic States

·        In  1947,when India got independent and the small provincess merged into India union then formation of new state becomes a bigger problems for India federal system.

·        How the new states formed is a qustions for newly independent India democracy.

·        After several meeting it is decided that languages bacomes the base for formation of new states.

·        In 1992 first elected govt.adopt these policy that new states formed always on the basis of language.

Language Policy

·        The second test for Indian Federation is the language policy.
·        Our Constitution did not give the status of national language to any one language.
·        Hindi was identified as the official language.
·         According to the Constitution, the use of English for official purposes was to stop in 1965.
·         The central government responded by agreeing to continue the use of English along with Hindi for official purposes.
·         Promotion does not mean that the Central Government can impose Hindi on states where people speak a different language.

Centre-State relations

·        In India federal system central and state govt.having different power and works.

·        The distoibution of power and work done by our constitution as per union list and state list.

·        But on serval contriversaal issues some times the relation b/w central and state govt disturb.

·        Central govt. having a special powers of article 356( President Rules) by which give central govt. want to impose the presidental rules in any states it can be done with the help of governor and President.

·        If any contrivoursy comes b/w central and state govt. the supreme court having power to resolve the confrences.

Decentralisation in India

 ·        Decentralisation means distrubution of works and power amoung different5 organs of govt.

·        By decentralisation several changes comes in India political sytems and govt.

·        It is meganetry to conduct regular elections for panchyat and local bodys.

·        Seats are reserve for SC,ST as for Constitional producezer.

·        On local body and panchyats one thirds sits are rejurfed for human candites.

·        The process of election commission also decentralise by state elections comission.

·        So,we can see that all communities of the society so that they becomes the main parts of the society.

 


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