3.CONSTITUTIONAL DESIGN

DemoraticConstilution in South Africa

Struggle Against Apartheid

  • Apartheid was a name of the system of national discrimniation in South Africa.
  • The white European people imposed this system in South Africa during 17th&18th century.
  • This system divide the people on the bases on their skin colour.
  • The netative people of south africa are black in coloured and they belons to 3/4th of total population of South Africa.
  • This was NELSON MANDELA who fight against this apartheid system against South Africa Govt.
  • He and 7 other leaders give life to impresiment in 1964 and spend 28 years in presion.
  • Since,1950 the blacked coloured Indians and South Africa fight against the apartheid system.

Towards A New Constitution

  • After 28years of imprisonment Nelson Mandela comes out at the mid-night 26th April 1994.
  • Now, South Africa becomes a Democratic Country and New National Flag adopted them.
  • The new leaders of South Africa started to work on a new constitution based on equality of all races,men&women.
  • The New Constitution also based on demorcratic value,social justice and human rights.
  • The New Constitution of South Africa inspires the other democratic country of the world on the basesof equality social justice.
Why Do We Needs A Constitution ?
  • The Constitution is the base of ruling in Demorcation Country.
  • Constitution distribuite the work between different layers of Govt.
  • Constitution resloves all distifiles between different agencices of good.
  • Constitution define the fundamental rights of ciyizens of the Country.
  • Constitution define the fundamental rights of citizens of the Country.
  • Constitution also tells the disties of the citizens.
Making Of The Indian Constitution
  • The first problem for Indian Constitution was the more than 500 state princley state into a Country.
  • The other problems are;-

  1. Formation of New State.
  2. Defince the National Lanaugage.
  3. Formation of Govt. and Different levels.
  4. Cocaudition between different types of people in Country.
  5. The tiatery to right to vote etc.

The path to Constitution

  • In 1928 ,Motilal Nehru and 8 other congresss leaders drafted a Constitution for India.
  • In 1931, in the Krachi Session on congress a past regraditing the constitution of India.
  • In 1946, a Constitutuent assembly formed for drafting the constitution after Indenpendence in 1947.
  • There are nearly 300 members includies in this assembly in the leadership   of some senior congress leaders.
The Constituent Assemly
  • For the drafting of the Constitution an assemly of resprenstative formed called Constituent assemly.
  • Election for the first Constituetent assemly were held in July 1946.
  • The first meeting of constituent assembly was held in dec 1946.After that the country was divided into two parts.
  • The Constituent assembly having 299 members in which nearly 200 members comes from princely states and remaining from congress.
  • The assembly adopted the constitution on 26 Nov 1949 and it comes into effct on 26 Jan 1950.
Guiding Values Of The Indian Constitution
  The Dream And The Promise
  • When India adopted democracy as a ruling system then several dream comes in the mind of Indian Citizens.
  • Some of the dreams are as follows:-
  1. Our Constitution give us rights to choose our govt.
  2. The Indian govt. work on the bases of equality.
  3. Equal law for all.
  4. Dignity of all indivals.
  5. Promote the social justice and work for the walefare the citizens of the country etc.

Philosophy of The Constitution 

  • Philosophy means names and objective of our Constitution.
  • The main philosophy of Constitution reflected in premble of the Constitutio.
  • The words comes in premble like;- Sovereign,Socialist,Secular,Democratic,Republic,Justice,Liberty,Equality,Fraternity are the main key words of Our Constitution.
  • So,We can say that the main philosophy of our constitution reflected by the premble of Constitution.

Institutional Design

  • Our Constitution provide as the working modals of our democracy for the best ruling system.
  • In view of this our constitution mode severals institution for different work.
  • Some of the institution are as follows;-
  1. Our Parliment
  2. Supreme Court of India
  3. Union Public Serive Commission(UPSC)
  4. Central Bearue of Investigationals(CBI)
  5. Election Commission (EC)
  • These all Instation work in their areas by our constitution.

                                    GLOSSARY

  • Apartheid:The official policy of racial separatio and ill treatment of blacks followed by the government of South Africa between 1948 and 1989.
  • Clause:A distint section of a document.
  • Constituent Assembiy: An assembiy of pepole's representatives that writes a constitution for a country.
  • Constitution:Supreme law of a country, containing fundamental rules governing the politics and society in a country.
  • Constitutional amendment:A charge in the constitution made by the supreme legislative body in a counrty.
  • Draft:A preliminary version of a legal document.
  • Philosophy:THE MOST FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES UNDERLIYING ONE,S THOUGHT AND ACTIONS.
  • Preamble:An introductory statement in a constitution which states the reasons and guiding values of the constitution.
  • Treason:The offence of attempting to overthrow the government of the state to which thje offender owes allegiance.
  • Tryst:A meeting or meeting place that has been agreed upon